v.l. Piliṇḍivaccha, Piliṇḍiyavaccha.– He was a brahmin of Sāvatthi, born before the Buddha’s Enlightenment. Piliṇḍa was his personal name, Vaccha being that of his family. He became a recluse and learnt the Cūḷa Gandhāra charm (vijjā), but, when the Buddha appeared, the charm refused to work. Having heard that the Mahā Gandhāra charm prevented the working of the Cūḷa Gandhāra charm, and having concluded that the Buddha knew the former, he entered the Order at the Buddha’s suggestion, in order to acquire it. The Buddha gave him exercises in meditation, and he became an Arahant.
Certain devas who had been born in the deva world as a result of Piliṇḍa’s guidance in a former birth, out of gratitude, waited on him morning and evening. He thus became famous as being dear to the devas, and was declared by the Buddha to be chief among such monks (A.i.24).
In the time of Padumuttara Buddha, he was a rich householder of Haṃsavatī and wished to become a monk beloved of the devas. In the time of Sumedhā Buddha be was born in the world of men and paid great honour to the Buddha’s thūpa. In a later existence he was a Cakkavatti, named Varuṇa, and established his subjects in righteousness, so that after death they were born in heaven (ThagA.i.51 f).
Piliṇḍa had a habit of addressing everyone as “outcaste” (vasala). When this was reported to the Buddha he explained that this was because Piliṇḍa had, for one hundred lives, been born among Vasalavādī-
“So be it,” said Piliṇḍa, and the pepper turned into dung. The man was horrified, and, seeking Piliṇḍa, persuaded him to right the matter (AA.i.154 f).
The Vinaya Piṭaka mentions ¹ that on several different occasions Piliṇḍa suffered from various ailments and the Buddha had to give permission for the provision of suitable remedies. Once Bimbisāra found Piliṇḍa clearing a cave in order to provide a cell for himself. The king promised to build a monastery for him if he could obtain the Buddha’s sanction. The permission was obtained and was reported to the king, but he forgot the matter until one hundred days later. On remembering, he made ample amends, gave Piliṇḍa five hundred attendants to look after the monastery, and granted for their maintenance a village, which came to be called Arāmikagāma or Piliṇḍagāma. One day, while in the village for alms, Piliṇḍa went into a house where a girl was weeping because the day was a feast day and she had no ornament to wear, her parents being too poor to afford any. Piliṇḍa gave her a roll of grass to put round her head and it turned instantly into solid gold. The king’s officers, hearing of this wreath, suspected the family of theft and cast them into prison. The next day Piliṇḍa, discovering what had happened, visited the king and convinced him of his psychic powers by turning the whole palace into gold. The family was released, and the king and his courtiers gave to Piliṇḍa large quantities of the five medicaments, all of which Piliṇḍa distributed among those who wished for them.²
Another story is related of Piliṇḍa’s psychic powers (Vin.iii.67). Once a family of Bārāṇasī, which was wont to minister to Piliṇḍa, was attacked by robbers and two girls were kidnapped. Piliṇḍa, by his psychic power caused them to be brought back, and the monks complained of this to the Buddha, but the Buddha held that no wrong had been done.
The Apadāna (i.59 f; 302‑16) has two sets of verses ascribed to Piliṇḍa, the second very much longer than the first, thus supporting the view mentioned earlier, that there were two Theras named Piliṇḍavaccha. In any event, there has evidently been a confusion of legends, and it is no longer possible to separate them. It is the first set of Apadāna verses which is quoted in the Theragāthā Commentary (loc. cit.). In the second set we are told that in the time of Padumuttara Buddha, Piliṇḍa was a very wealthy gatekeeper (dovārika). He took many precious gifts to Ānanda, Padumuttara’s father, and won from him a boon. He asked, as his boon, that he should be allowed to entertain the Buddha. The king refused to grant this, but the gatekeeper appealed to the judges and they gave the verdict in his favour. Thereupon he held a great almsgiving of unparalleled splendour for seven days and gave away all manner of gifts. As a result he was born one thousand times as king of the devas and one thousand times also as king of men. In his last birth he suffered from neither heat nor cold, dust did not adhere to his body, and the rain did not wet him.
¹ Vin.i.204 f. Some hold (e.g., Brethren 14, n. 4) that the Thera of Rājagaha, mentioned in the following stories, was distinct from the Thera of Sāvatthi. See below.
² Vin.i.206 ﬀ; iii.248 ﬀ. This was the occasion for the forming of the rule that all medicaments required by a monk should be used within seven days. It was in reference to this that the Gandhāra Jātaka (J.iii.363 ﬀ.) was taught. The incident of the palace being turned into gold is referred to at Kvu.608.